The social and cultural categories of men and women, for example, whereas 'sex' tends to be used in a biological sense. It is thus more related to societal norms, roles, and relationships and so gender identity can be more fluid than sex, in the sense that a person's gender may shift from the sexual identity assigned at birth. It is also recognised that the traditional binary categories of man/woman do not account for the whole population.
a term used in the 'Teaching for Understanding' movement for themes or ideas for teaching which have sufficient depth, connections, and significance to help develop real understanding in learners. However, unless learners are involved early on in their development or selection, there is a risk of a teacher-centred or -dominated curriculum emerging (see rich tasks).
a unified whole that cannot be derived from a summation of constituent parts. It features in theories of learning which emphasise the way learners make sense of the world in meaningful wholes and not as atomised simple ideas/perceptions which are then amalgamated.
the act, manner or function of governing.
a term from the work of Michel Foucault (1926-1984) which refers to a form of activity intended to guide or shape conduct in a variety of contexts, and the rationalisation of such activity; mentalities of rule; how we think about governing ourselves and others.
the body of people elected and co-opted to manage schools. It is a term in use in the English system, and more widely in the independent schools sector.
where assessment is conducted so that there is a normal distribution of learners' results, with most around the mean and a few at either pole.
a term in use since the middle ages, originally indicating a school offering a classical curriculum. More recently it refers to an academically oriented school, usually with entry determined by selection - the 11-plus exam in England, the qualifying exam in Scotland. These were abolished following the introduction of comprehensive schools in 1965, but some areas of England have retained or re-introduced them.
the term used in Scotland for direct grant schools.
an amount of money which is given to a person or body for some purpose, for example a student grant, or a block grant from central to local government.
a method of qualitative research which endeavours to operate by having theory 'emerge' from the data rather than approaching data with theory or preconceived concepts. Its attempt to be more naturalistic by drawing its theoretical framework and related concepts from the participants themselves is not without its critics.
a term for the phenomenon whereby members of a group may suppress disagreement, fail to consider alternative suggestions, ignore the wider, practical implications of their thinking, adopt a uniformly consensus approach which may result in poor decision-making.
a common metaphor for educational development.
pastoral care provided in schools.