Glossary of terms used on this site

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Term Definition

any action or course of action designed to rectify some difficulty or lack of progress in learning.


the repetition of an experiment or research study to check its validity or reliability the extent to which research is judged to be repeatable.


giving a verbal or written statement in education most usually in terms of assessing a learner's progress attainment and achievements.


in education systematic study and investigation undertaken to extend knowledge. Applied research involves using the results of research to affect practice. Much debate surrounds the nature and value of educational research as the nature of education is not readily amenable to the quantitative techniques of empirical science whereas qualitative research is sometimes viewed as limited in terms of its generalisability.


of a school institution programme or course: providing or requiring accommodation.


      the ability to recover readily from or adjust easily to adversity misfortune or setbacks of any      kind buoyancy. It is viewed as being a key factor in success in education particularly for      those  from disadvanted backgrounds. The importance given to it has been criticised       however  on the grounds that it seems to place the onus on the individual to adapt or cope       rather than focusing on action to address the underlying disadvantage itself.


in education the stock or supply of materials (including staff) provided to support the effective achievement of various goals.

responsive planning

an approach to teaching where the teacher's plans for the nature and sequence of activities is determined not in advance but by the actions of the learners their interest as evident at the time (see contingent teaching).

restorative practice

an approach to behaviour management but also to personnel management generally which focuses on repairing relationships rather than on retribution or punishment in cases of misdemeanour or rule-breaking.

restricted code

a term in sociolinguistics which refers to a style of language marked by informal predictable features and relying on contextual understanding and shared experience to convey meaning. It is contrasted with elaborated code.


the practice of amending or countering previously held or established opinions or attitudes   the modification of socialist or Marxist beliefs typically away from revolutionary principles.


any consequence a person experiences to their behaviour which tends to increase the likelihood of that behaviour being repeated. Used widely in education they are not without problems however. They may increase compliant superficial behaviour whereas the underlying understanding and commitment may be missing people respond in different ways so some rewards may not work. Other consequences not intended as rewards may be seen as such: for example sanctions may reward because of the attention value (see reinforcement).


the art of effective or persuasive speaking. Sometimes the term is used pejoratively where there is perceived gap between the words used and evident reality. For example political claims about education may be described as mere 'rhetoric' if they are not seen to be a fair representation of the real situation ( see spin).

rhizomatic learning

a model where the curriculum is developed and adapted by participants in a dynamic way in response to circumstances. It stresses the interconnectedness of learning, networks of learners, and has no pre-set limits or outcomes.

right wing

descriptive of conservative or reactionary political views.

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